K-S Analysis

K-S Analysis

Ground Penetrating Radar

German Technology
INNOVATION and PERFORMANCE in Ground Penetrating Radar

Ground Penetrating Radar KS-700

Description of the device, areas of application:

ks700The device has 1 antenna (transmitting and receiving antenna) which is firmly connected with the apparatus and connected to the electronic components. For this radar it is not necessary to change the antenna in order to explore higher depths, because it is based on other physical principles than, for example, the pulse radar. But it is possible to optimize the device for other searching tasks by adjusting the software.

The antenna is also shielded to all directions and therefore it only permeates (penetrates) into the ground. The depth is calculated with a formula from radar techniques by the software. Our radar can be completely operated by one person only.

Areas of application:ks-700-2

  • In searching of problematic archaeological relics and residues, and wastes underground.
  • Preliminary study of the ground for building projects.
  • For danger diagnose of mining secondary damages and landslides.
  • In localization of underground cellars, mining galleries, tunnels etc.
  • In localization of pipes, pipelines, walls etc., and also for cavities, underground waters and water springs.
  • In archaeology and many more underground scanning, searching and exploration.

Device description:

  • FMCW-Ground Penetrating Radar
  • Weight: 5.1 kg (without battery)
  • Antenna is firmly assembled, change not possible
  • Analysis of measuring profiles via laptop (laptop not included)
  • System software: MS-Windows
  • 2D visualization software and areal measurement
  • Dimensions: Length 44, Width 33, Height: 12 cm
  • Portable by one person only
  • 12V 18Ah Plumb-acid gel battery (rechargeable by every car battery charger) for radar electronics (not included).


Software / Visualization

The software realizes the immediate presentation of the measuring picture.

The presentation of the measurement profiles is two-dimensional and allows the user a quick realization of the measurement profile.

Examples can be found in our references.

2D measuring pictures:


The special software which provides data visualization in two-dimensions (2D) is included. With the import-export function of the software it is possible to transform to 3D Data Visualization Solution and to obtain 3D visualization; in this case it is necessary to buy the software separately; Voxler’s Golden Surfer, for example.

3D measuring pictures:

Napoleon Cemetery, An underground tunnel in Germany

KS-700 Ground Penetrating Radar:
Clear and detailed specification of existing radiometric and geophysical researches

2D & 3D sampling with KS-700

Tunnel: Visualization with 4m distance measuring point, Tunnel: Visualization with 2m distance measuring point

Underground water flow, in depth of 8 meters

Properties / Technical Data KS-700


KS-700 device is developed for determining localization of underground spaces. It is somewhat a “Ground Penetrating Radar” and it operates according to the principle "FMCW-Radar". Ground radar may investigate depths in the range of 0 m to 40 m on firm ground. We found tunnels from 2nd World War at 60 m depth on limestone areas; those tunnels were 5 m wide and 7 m deep. As it is stated in the page titled references in our web site, locations of small underground spaces from 18th century could be found with this device and underground creep canals towards coal pits could be detected. Those canals were 26.3 m deep from the surface and they may be easily detected with ground radar. This radar may also detect metals embedded to in ground layers; this device is more commonly used for underground researches in southern countries. The intended use commonly involve determination of spaces such as basements, bunkers, tunnels, metal etc. and localization of networks (power, water pipeline) laid under the ground and old mine pits and similar structures. This radar takes the measurement date and the data is real time demonstrated/displayed in 2-D graphic in the Tablet PC.

Delivery of KS-700:

  • Electronic control unit
  • 2D visualization software (for 3D visualization software, “Golden Surfer” should be separately bought; “Voxler” is used in this device)
  • Device (KS-700) carry case
  • USB cable
  • Battery connection cable
  • 1 Antenna (integrated with the device)

Most manufacturer offers different frequency range and therefore different antennas. The low the frequency is, the deeper it’s reached, but the worse resolution is. The meaning of resolution: it is impossible to find a small object with low frequency, but better depth performance is reached. Therefore, some manufacturers produce pulse radars offering different antennas in different frequency areas. The obligation to find a compromise solution has appeared in order to eliminate geophysical contradiction ideally. We have solved this problem with our own devices. We have been specialized in FMCW radar and thus have chosen an operating frequency offering an acceptable resolution which penetrates great depth according to ground structure. Therefore, we don't need various antennas.

"Instructions for Use" CD is sent during shipment of ground radar. In the instruction for use, the measuring procedure and software setting and set-up of the device are explained and shown. Since we have worldwide clients, we prepared a video film having following content;

  • Assembly of the ground radar
  • Starting the operation of ground radar
  • Software setting
  • Complete measuring procedure
  • Assessment of measuring charts
  • Recording measurement images
  • Shutting down the ground radar

When ground radar is first operated, instructions are displayed in English. Software language can be preferred as English or German. Since English language is requested worldwide, we preferred English in addition to German.

KS-700 Technical data

Radar type: Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar
Dimension: length:445 mm, width:334 mm, height: 120 mm (without carrying handle)
Weight: 5,1 kg
operating voltage: 12 Volt /min. 10 Ah battery
Transmitter: Time control (1-15 sec.)
Sampling time: 20ns-100ns
Real-time sampling: 1.25 kHz – 50 MHz
Max. Sampling: 1 GHz
Bandwidth: A/D-Converter DC-60 MHz
Data processing: Using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
FFT resolution 2048 lines
Achievable performance(in limestone) 30 m
Interface: USB
  • Spectrum analyzer
  • 2D visualization: Stone Age (English-German-Turkish)
  • 3D visualization: Golden Surfer Voxler (English)